If you have chronic kidney disease and are not on dialysis, a low protein diet is recommended. In that sense, getting too much protein can progress the disease more quickly, since the extra protein can be taxing on the kidneys. If your total protein intake for the day is too high (which includes food and protein powder), that would not be beneficial.
However even with chronic kidney disease, you still do need an adequate amount of quality protein, just less than you would if you didn’t have the condition. Your ideal protein powder intake depends on how much protein you are consuming in the rest of your diet. If your intake of protein is very low from food sources, then the protein powder could still help you reach your needs.
We always recommend consulting with your physician about any supplements you are taking or planning on taking.